Types of CNC Machine: Definition, Operation, Working, Materials & Support Software
Introduction of CNC Machine
Types of CNC Machine: Definition, Operation, Working, Materials & Support Software : The term CNC is the short form for ‘computer numerical control’, and the CNC Machining is simply put together as a process of manufacturing which usually employs machine tools and computerized controls to get rid of layers of fabric from a stock piece known because the work piece or blank and produces a customized-designed half.
This method is very good for a variety of substances, as well as plastics, glass, metal, wood and foam, and composites, and is widely used in some of the industry giants as elements of CNC Machining, CNC Machining part elements and machining of elements and prototypes for telecommunications, that need much higher tolerances than compared to various other industries. Note that there is a point of difference among the CNC machining definition and therefore the definition of CNC machine where one of them may be a method and therefore the other one may be a machine.
Overview of CNC Machining Processes
A simple upgrade from Numerical management (NC) machining method that made the use of punched tape cards, CNC machining method is a process that utilizes computerized controls to work and manipulate machine and cutting tools to form stock material e.g., metal, wood, plastic, foam, composite, etc. into custom elements and styles, whereas the CNC machining method offers varied capabilities and operations, the basic principles of the method stay mostly very comparable throughout all of them. The fundamental CNC machining method includes the subsequent stages:
- The execution of the machining operation
- The preparation of the CNC machine
- The conversion of the CAD file to a CNC program
- CAD model designing
Types of CNC Machining Operations
CNC machining could be a producing method appropriate for a host of industries, together with automotive, construction, aerospace, and agriculture, and able to turn out a spread of product, like automobile frames, aeroplane engine, surgical instrumentality, gears, and garden and hand tools. The method encompasses a huge amount of totally different computer-controlled machining operations including chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal processes which take away the required material from the piece of work to provide a custom-designed half or product, whereas processes such as chemical, thermal and electrical machining measure coated section later.
CNC machining process includes the following machining operations:
- CNC Milling
- CNC Turning
- CNC Drilling
1. CNC Milling
Milling could be a machining method that employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to get rid of material from the piece of work. In this process of CNC Milling, the CNC machine usually works the work piece within the same direction as of the cutlery the reason being the cutting tool’s rotation, whereas when compared to the manual edge the machine works the work piece to the way which is away from the cutting tool’s rotation. Operational capabilities of the edge method embody face milling cutting shallow, flat surfaces and flat-bottomed cavities into the piece of work and peripheral milling cutting deep cavities, like slots and threads, into the work piece.
2. CNC Turning
In CNC Turning, the machine used which is generally a CNC shaping machine feeds the cutlery while on motion (linear) on the surface of the work piece which is rotating, resulting in removal of material from the circumference of the work piece till the specified diameter is achieved, to provide cylindrical elements with external and internal options, like slots, tapers, and threads. The capabilities which are operational of the turning method mainly consists of grooving, boring, thread cutting, and facing. As soon as it is available right below in CNC lathe, milling, with its rotating cutting tools, works higher for additional advanced elements. However, lathes, with rotating work pieces and stationary cutting tools, work best for quicker, additional correct creation of spherical elements.
3. CNC Drilling
Drilling could be a machining method that employs multi-point drill bits to provide cylindrical holes within the piece of work. In CNC drilling, usually the CNC machine feeds the rotating drilling bit sheer to the plane of the work piece’s surface, that produces vertically-aligned holes with diameters up to the diameter of the drilling bit utilized for the drilling operation. Operational capabilities of the drilling method embody counter boring, countersinking, reaming, and sound.
Types of CNC Machine
1. Grinding CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
Grinding CNC machines are precision performance tool which use a rotating wheel for cutting the metal away from metal. Generally Grinding CNC machines were used for ball bearings, camshafts, transmission shafts and several of other working pieces which need a correct and accurate finish.
Several pieces which are made by using a grinding CNC machine are generally cylindrical. Grinding machines are used for making various types of work pieces. In grinding CNC machines, the ‘CNC’ stand for the computerized numerical control.
2. Lathe CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
These machines can be defined by the capability they have to turn the materials while the operation was going on. Lathe CNC machines have less number of axes as compared with milling CNC machines which makes then compact as well as shorter.
At the Centre the CNC lathe machines have a lathe which transfers and manages material programmatically to the computer. Due to its accurate and fast function, it is widely used nowadays.
3. Plasma Cutting CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
Plasma cutting CNC machines are similar to milling CNC machines; they are used for cutting materials also. By the use of plasma torch they are differ from milling CNC machines.
They perform the cutting by electrically conductive materials with the use of an accelerated steam of hot plasma. Plasma cutting CNC machines feature high powered torch which is able to cut within the rough materials like metal.
4.CNC Electric Discharge Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
It has a transient effect which means that it is able to degrade element from which it is presented. These machines have advantage of these features by designing controlled sparks for reshaping materials. The materials are placed in between the bottom and top of electrode and then the computer decide the amount of electrical discharge produced by the electrodes.
5. Laser Cutting CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
These machines are generally designed for cut through hard materials, for performing the cutting task they uses a laser in place of plasma torch. Lasers used by these machines have a very high degree of accuracy but they are less effective than plasma torches. Laser cutting CNC machine generally uses any one of these lasers which is CO2, Yttrium aluminum garnet and neodymium.
6. Router CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
Router CNC machine work like other CNC machines work such as milling or lathe. The main difference between Router CNC machine and other machines is that Router CNC machines is that they are hand held routers which is used for all the carpenter works manually like door craving, interior, exterior decoration, signboards, wood panels, molding, wood frames, furniture, musical instruments and many more.
7. CNC Machine with Automatic Tool Changes: ( Types of CNC Machine )
CNC machine with automatic tool changes are generally used for reducing the non productive time. They are proved to be perfect step for complete automation.
8. 5-Axis CNC Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
These machines have 5 axes. Generally they have 3 axes which is x, y and z, the cutting operation done by any tool in three directions but two axes are added (A and B) resulting into 5 axes. 5-axis CNC machine are used for producing sculptures.
9. Pick and Place Machine: ( Types of CNC Machine )
Pick and place machines are used in industries. These machines have many nozzles which is used for lifting electrical components for electronic equipment and then they place them in right place. They are usually used for the manufacturing of computers, tablets and cell phones etc.
10. 3-D Printer: ( Types of CNC Machine )
In 3-D printer machines, elements are printed layer by layer. The drawing and design are done by CAD and CAM and the 3D printer are used for reflecting the designs. 3-D printer is used for printing the premises and buildings.
Types of CNC Machining Support Software
Code applications which are taken in use are:
- CAE Software
- CAM Software
- CAD Software
1. CAE Software
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) code is taken in use to analyze the programs utilized by engineers from beginning till the end of the process which is pre-processing, analysis, and post-processing phases of the project. CAE code is employed as helpful support tools in engineering analysis applications, like design, repair, simulation, producing, planning, and diagnosis to assist with evaluating and modifying product style. Forms of CAE code accessible embody finite part analysis (FEA),multibody dynamics (MDB) and procedure fluid dynamics (CFD) code.
There are found code applications which have successfully combined all of the aspects of CAD, CAM, and CAE code. This integrated program, usually named as CAD/CAM/CAE code, permits one code program to manage the whole fabrication method starting from design to analysis to production.
2. CAM Software
Computer-aided producing (CAM) is taken in use to measure programs used and then extract the technical data from the CAD model and ultimately generate machine program necessary to run the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to provide the custom-designed half. CAM code permits the CNC machine to run while not operator help and might facilitate change finished product analysis.
3. CAD Software
Software package (CAD) code square measure programs accustomed draft and turn out 2nd vector or 3D solid half and surface renderings, also all the necessary and relevant technical documentation and specifications related to the half. The styles and models generated during a CAD program square measure usually utilized by a CAM program are used to form the required machine program to provide the half via a CNC machining technique. CAD code also can be accustomed to be verified and outline optimum half properties, valuate and verify half styles, simulate product while not a image, and supply style knowledge to makers and job retailers.
CNC Machining Material
The method of CNC machining widely finds its use for a range of engineering materials, including:
- Plastic (e.g., PEEK, PTFE, nylon, etc.)
- Metal (e.g., aluminum, brass, stainless-steel, steel, etc.)
The best material for choice to use to a CNC producing application is essentially keen about the actual producing application and its specifications. Most of the materials can supposedly be machined given that they’ll face up to the machining process i.e., have ample hardness, lastingness, shear strength, and temperature and chemical resistance.
The piece of work under operation and its physical properties square measure accustomed verify the best cutting feed rate, cutting speed, and depth of cut. Measured generally in per minute surface feet, the cutting speed represents to how briskly the machine cuts into or removes material from the piece of work. The feed rate measured in inches per minute is a live of how briskly the piece of work is fed towards the machine, and also the cut depth is however deep the cutting implements cuts into the piece of work. Typically, the piece of work can initial bear AN initial innovate that it’s roughly machined to the approximate, custom-designed form and dimensions, then undertake a finishing innovate that it experiences slower feed rates and shallower cut depths to attain its a lot of precise and correct specifications.
Alternative of Employing a CNC Machine
Although CNC machining demonstrates many benefits of its use over alternative producing processes, it sometimes is not acceptable for some of the producing application, and alternative processes could prove could be a lot more appropriate and efficient. Although here we mainly were focusing on the mechanical machining processes of CNC that with the help of machine tools supply the desired part or customized product, CNC controls may be integrated into a very wide range of machines. Alternative mechanical CNC Machining processes which can be used rather than this are water jet cutting, supersonic machining, and abrasive jet machining.
Besides electrochemical processes, chemical, mechanical and thermal machining processes also are of much use. Chemical machining processes generally consists of blanking, chemical milling, and engraving; processes based on electrochemical embrace electrochemical grinding and deburring; and thermal machining processes embrace optical device cutting, ray machining, discharge machining and plasma arc cutting.
Also Read: – Components of CNC Machine