15 Types of Cement – Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages [Complete Details]
15 Types of Cement – Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages [Complete Details]: – Cement is a fine-gray powder that is blended in with water and different substances to make mortar or concrete. Cement is a critical part of the construction of buildings, streets, and other brick and motor manifestations. Assuming you thought that this material comes in a one-size-fits-all version, you are so off-base! Now is the right time to find out about the many kinds of cement accessible in the market to take special care of various construction purposes. Understanding the various properties of the many types of cement might assist you with pursuing an informed decision while choosing materials for your project.
Cement is significant in light of the fact that it binds, or holds, the concrete mix together, giving it strength. These varieties of cement vary with quality, innovation, composition, and goals to accomplish in the building sites. While some are utilized for general masonry works, others are picked for decorative purposes.
Classification of Cement
Cement are comprehensively classified into two categories – Hydraulic and Non-Hydraulic, contingent upon how they react to the presence of water.
A) Hydraulic Cement
This cement gets hardened or solidified in an extremely short span to focus are generally utilized in constructions for saving time and exertion. The basic parts are limestone, clay, and gypsum, blended in exceptionally high temperatures to create areas of strength for an impact.
The advantage of these cement types is that they are impervious to weather conditions changes and, even, underwater conditions like tanks, pools, and so forth, they are additionally nonreactive to chemical attacks.
B) Non-Hydraulic Cement
They have an extremely long setting period and can only work in dry circumstances. Non-hydraulic isn’t pragmatic for business developments, as they can’t be utilized in sites that are available to weather conditions challenges.
Made with lime, gypsum, and oxychloride, these cement can’t be utilized for water-related constructions and are rigorously reserved for indoor purposes to accomplish structural strength.
Types of Cement
Below is the list of different types of Cement:-
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): ( Types of Cement )
The ordinary Portland cement or OPC falls under the hydraulic category and is acquired by heating the Argillaceous (clay and shale) and Calcareous (limestone, chalk, and marl) in exceptionally high temperatures, called the Calcination process.
The end product is known as the Clinker, which is then crushed into a fine powder and afterward blended in with Calcium Sulfate and Gypsum to make cement. This is the most well-known type of cement utilized for general construction and development purposes. It promptly responds with water and has quick-dry characteristics.
2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC): ( Types of Cement )
The fundamental component of this cement is Pozzolona, which incorporates materials like fly ash, volcanic debris, or calcined clay. This cement is prepared in two ways – one by crushing or grinding the Pozzolanic clinker with conventional Portland cement or adding Pozzolana with gypsum or calcium sulfate.
Another method is to mix the Portland cement with powdered Pozzolana. It is highly impervious to chemical attacks and falls under the hydraulic cement types. They are suitable for marine constructions, pre-casted sewage channels, dams, etc.
They Can be used for creating concrete artworks, as it lends a smooth and glossy finish. Portland pozzolana cement is available as 50 kgs sack bags in the current Indian market
3. Quick Setting Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This Cement gets its name from its quick-setting properties. It sets in quick time just in 5 minutes, with 30 minutes as the final setting time. The cement is of a proportion of Clinker and Aluminum Sulfate to increase the hydration rate.
The contrast between a quick Setting cement and a rapid hardening cement is that the former just sets rapidly, while the last option develops and hardens fast. They can be utilized in humid weather conditions and underwater constructions. They are for the most part utilized in high temperatures for quick dissipation of moisture. They are accessible in 25kg, 40kg, and 50kg bags.
4. Low Heat Cement: ( Types of Cement )
A unique type of cement that releases low heat of hydration, which is a chemical reaction that happens when the cement gets blended in with water. The benefit of generating lower heat of hydration is a limited risk of cracks on the body.
This cement is prepared by bringing down the proportion of Tricalcium Aluminate by 6% and increasing Declaim Silicate to 46% to forestall cracks because of high heat. They are utilized in mass construction sites like dams, bridges, enormous slabs, chemical plants etc. They are less reactive cement and have a higher setting time contrasted with the regular OPC.
5. Rapid Hardening Cement: ( Types of Cement )
In sites that demand faster construction and development in a lesser time window, rapid hardening cement is the most ideal decision. As the name recommends, it sets in only 30 seconds initially and 600 minutes as the final setting time. The key to this strength lies in its formula which contains a higher percentage of Tri-Calcium Silicate than regular Portland Cement.
This cement needs 3 days to totally create or harden contrasted with a 7-day window of a traditional OPC. They Can be utilized for road repair works, pavements, and pre-fabricated constructions. Rapid hardening cement isn’t suggested for mass construction sites, as the risk of developing cracks is extremely high.
6. High Alumina Cement: ( Types of Cement )
The High Alumina cement is made of Calcium aluminates, rather than the Calcium silicates utilized in regular Portland cement. Therefore it is frequently alluded to as Calcium Aluminate cement or Aluminous cement. This cement has a very high compressive strength and is fire-resistant, making it suitable for large constructions.
It is prepared by melting bauxite and lime mixture and then grinding it with a clinker. They are suitable for building sites subjected to extreme weather conditions like high temperatures or frost.
7. White Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This is a white-colored or shaded cement that is made by reducing or diminishing the extents or proportions of iron oxide and manganese oxide. While different properties stay remain similar to that of conventional cement, the costly evaluation makes it unsuitable for full construction and development.
The present-day white cement has water-resistant properties. White cement is typically utilized as a grout to set the tiles on the flooring, in pools, and in other interior and exterior decorative works. It leaves a smooth completion on the surface and thus is utilized as a leveler product.
8. Sulphate-Resisting Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This cement was developed in light of the sulfate attacks on the cement in a concrete structure. Sulfate-resisting cement falls under the hydraulic cement category. It is made by reducing or decreasing the amounts of calcium sulpho aluminates like C3A and C4AF.
This is an ideal choice for construction sites wherein the soil or groundwater contains high amounts of sulfate salts like seacoasts, flowing regions, or locales nearer to the sea waters. They are ideal for water storage sumps and drainage or seepage works.
9. Air Entraining Cement: ( Types of Cement )
The Air Entraining cement is an alternate cement variety that has an addition of a limited amount of air-entraining agents like glues or resin to create air bubbles in the concrete. This cement can withstand sulphate attacks. This method is utilized for increasing the cold resistance in cement, particularly when it is subjected to frequent freezing and thawing.
The bubbles allow the space for contracting and expansion in cold climates to lower the risks of cracks and internal damage. It is not a high-strength cement and is designed for spatial use only.
10. Expansive Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This cement grows in volume when blended in with water contrasted with ordinary Portland cement. By doing so, the cement aids in limiting the shrinkage loss caused because of loss of moisture. There are three sub-types of expansive cement, particular K-type, M-type, and S-type. These vary from one another as far as unrefined components and the intent of the application.
It is primarily used to bring down the risk of cracks in concrete constructions and developments as well as pavements. Expansive cement isn’t recommended to use alongside fly ash and other pozzolans, as they can interfere with the expanding properties and strength.
11. Coloured Cement: ( Types of Cement )
Concrete isn’t Grey or white most of the time. With advancements in innovation, you can now find colored cement on the lookout. By blending 5 to 10% of mineral pigments into conventional cement, you can acquire beautiful colored cement like blue, green, yellow, and so forth. In the event that the pigment surpasses 10%, the strength of the cement is lost. Thus, the proportion is very important. These cements are utilized for creating decorative effect in flooring.
12. Hydro-graphic Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This cement has water-repelling properties to keep away from the loss of cement in regions affected by frequent water contact. The customary Portland Clinker is blended in with Oleic acid or other water repellents to shape a thin film on the cement surface. Along these lines, the cement can’t be blended in with water directly.
All things being equal, it is mixed with an aggregate to break the protective layer and allow the hydration process. Hydro-graphic cement is utilized for constructing dams and underwater construction and development. It is specially designed for high rainfall regions to limit the damage to concrete structures.
13. Waterproof Cement: ( Types of Cement )
Waterproof or water-resisting cement has practically the same use as that of hydro-graphic cement. It falls under the hydraulic cement category. In many cases, the manufacturing process and the properties are different in both these cement. Waterproof cement is made by adding a water-repelling agent to normal Portland cement.
Nonetheless, it isn’t generally as watertight as hydro-graphic and may not be suitable for high water conditions. They are utilized for waterproofing the terrace flooring, water tanks, and submerged sumps.
14. Slag Cement: ( Types of Cement )
A sort of hydraulic cement that is prepared by finely crushing the granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Nowadays, slag cement is utilized as an option in contrast to Portland cement for its better work-ability. It has a higher resistance and protection to chemical reactions and better compressive strengths. Likewise, adding slag cement to the standard concrete mixture can accelerate the setting time and give a superior completion. It is for the most part utilized in precast and ready-made cement and building structures that require high-temperature resistance.
15. Ultra-High Strength Cement: ( Types of Cement )
This is another variety of cement innovations, made as a feature of the new technological advancements. The cement is presently utilized in evolved in some countries, for making bridges and other massive structural designs. The ingredients utilized in this cement are Portland cement, Silica fume, Quartz flour, Superplasticizers, and organic or steel fibers. It is very sturdy in freeze-thaw conditions. They have extremely low chlorine permeability and high abrasive resistance contrasted with different types of cement.
Advantages of Cement
- Ingredients of cement are effectively accessible in the majority of places.
- Cement can be manufactured to the ideal strength with an economy.
- The strength of cement is exceptionally high.
- It very well may be cast to any ideal shape.
- The casting of cement should be possible on the working site which makes it economical.
- The maintenance cost of cement is practically negligible.
- The deterioration of cement isn’t appreciable with age.
- Cement makes a building fire-safe because of its non-combustible nature.
- Cement can endure high temperatures.
- Cement is resistant to wind and water. Along these lines, it is extremely helpful in storm cellars.
- As a soundproofing material cinder cement could be utilized.
Disadvantages of Cement
- Contrasted with other binding materials, the tensile strength of cement is somewhat low.
- Cement is less ductile
- The weight of the contrasted is high compared to its strength.
- Cement may contain solvent salts. Solvent salts cause efflorescence.
Contingent upon your requirements, you can address the architect on which cement suits your requirements the best. Assuming that you have additional points to share about any of these type of cement, do tell us! The various kinds of cement come from adding different ingredients and changing the extents of ingredients. These additions and changes permit the cement to be utilized in all that from general construction work to sulfate-resistance applications like sewage systems.