Welding Position: Types of Welding Positions, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and 6G [Complete Details]

Welding Position: Types of Welding Positions, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and 6G [Complete Details]
Welding Position

Welding Position Introduction:

Welding Position: Types of Welding Positions, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and 6G [Complete Details]: – At the point when you do welding, you for the most part keep the workpieces in the place that they will be after they are welded. Be that as it may, such positions may just sometime be comfortable for welding. For that reason, there are different welding techniques that have come up that permit the welder to keep the workpieces in any convenient position.

What is Welding Position?

A welding position is a procedure that a welder uses to join metals in the position in which they are found or in which a particular component would be utilized. Basically, welding positions are various angles of joining metals.

What is a Welding Process?

The welding process can be characterized given the position of the workpiece or the position of the welded joint on the plate.

This implies that not every weld can be performed in a horizontal and flat position. Now and then other welding positions might be required to design or manufacture assemblies. It is on the grounds that the workpiece can’t be stood firm in an exact position because of its different shape or size.

Types of Welding Positions?

There are five sorts of welding positions i.e., flat, horizontal, inclined, vertical, and overheard. The normal sorts of welds are section and filet welds.Welders can perform both of these welds in each of the five positions.

The welding position relies upon the filler metal, the welding system as well as the transfer mode. Most filler metals are suitable for all positions, however, there are some that are reasonable just for the horizontal position. TIG welding should be possible in all situations, while spray transfer MIG is for flat and horizontal positions only.

  • Flat Position (1G and 1F)
  • Horizontal Position (2G and 2F)
  • Vertical Position (3F and 3G)
  • Overhead Position (4G and 4F)
  • Inclined Position

1. Flat Position (1G and 1F): ( Types of Welding Positions )

At point when you place the workpieces flat on the floor or workbench, the position is referred to as the flat position in welding. It is most certainly the simplest position of all since you are not welding against gravity. At the point when you are going for the flat position on a plate surface, there are a couple of things you ought to keep up with well. The tip angle, the position of the flame, and how much the flare motion is significant.

The welding flare ought to be adjusted in the event that you have any desire to make a narrow bead or broad-bead welds. The tip ought to be at a 45-degree angle with the plate surface. In this process, the weld puddle goes into the joint equally in a fluid state. The fluid can be hotter than expected, and the deposition rate will be higher on account of the gravity factor. All welding processes. should be possible in a level position.

2. Horizontal Position (2G and 2F): ( Types of Welding Positions )

The horizontal welding position is a more difficult position than the flat position and requires additional expertise from the welding operator. 2G is for groove weld position, which includes keeping the weld axis in an horizontal plane. The face of the weld, it should lie in a perpendicular plane.

2F is a filet weld position in which welding is performed on the upper side of surfaces that are almost even against an almost vertical surface. Here, the torch is by and large kept at an angle of 45 degrees.

3. Vertical Position (3G and 3F): ( Types of Welding Positions )

In this welding position, both the piece and the weld are inverse or practically opposite. 3F and 3G are basically for vertical filet and vertical groove positions.

While welding is done vertically, the force of gravity pushes the molten metal downward and hence will in a general stack. To balance this, the welder can utilize an upward or downward vertical position.

To test it in the upward position, point the flame in the upward position, holding it at a 45-degree angle to the piece. Along these lines, the welder will apply the force of gravity to the metal from the lower portions of the workpiece towards the weld.

4. Overhead Position (4G and 4F): ( Types of Welding Positions )

In this sort of welding position, welding is performed from the lower part of the joint. The 4G and 4F welding positions are reasonable for groove and filet welds.

In the overhead position, the metal deposited in the joint prompts a hole in the piece, happening in a bead with a higher crown. To stay away from this, keep the molten puddle small. In the event that the weld puddle turns out to be too long, eliminate the flame briefly to permit the molten metal to cool.

5. Inclined Position: ( Types of Welding Positions )

In this kind of welding position, the slope and rotation can vary from 10 to 40 degrees or from 0 to 90 degrees. The workpiece is placed in an inclined or slanted plane. In this present circumstance, the force of gravity causes the molten metal to flow downward in a flat position. A small arc ought to be utilized to produce beads in the inclined position.

Groove and Fillet Welding Positions:

A) For Groove Welding:

  1. 1G – flat welding position
  2. 2G – horizontal welding position
  3. 3G – vertical welding position
  4. 4G – welding position overhead or overhead)
  5. 5G – uphill and downhill vertical welding position
  6. 6G – overhead vertical welding position

B) For Fillet Welding:

  1. 1F – flat welding position
  2. 2F – horizontal welding position
  3. 3F – vertical welding position
  4. 4F – welding position overhead or overhead

Pipe and Plate Welding Positions:

Pipe welding is the welding process of joining two comparative or divergent pipes together. Welding techniques for pipes incorporate arc welding, TIG, and MIG welding. In the construction of a project in the oil and gas industry, we frequently track down welding activities on pipes or tanks.

To accomplish a more incredible welding quality, professional organizations (ASME, AWS, ISO, JWES) make rules and groupings of welding positions. By and large, the pipe welding position is divided into two kinds: the welding position at the groove joint and the welding position at the filet joint.

There are all around six welding positions with numbers and letters,which are 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, and 6G/6GR. All positions are utilized in various angles and shapes while welding pipes.

1. 1G/1F/PA Welding Position (Flat):

1G/1F/PA welding position is a flat welding position. Here the pipe is flat, and can be rotated against the horizontal or X-axis. In this weld position, the welder embeds a piece of metal just beneath the torch, and welding is performed over the pipe. This position is likewise utilized for butt, groove, and filet welds.

2. 2F/PB Welding Position (Horizontal):

This is a horizontal welding position utilized for filet welds. In the 2F welding position, a welder should hold the torch at a 45° angle with the piece close to him. The specific angle of the torch relies upon the angles of the pipe.

In this kind of welding position, butt welding is somewhat more complex than flat welding. This is brought about by the molten metal flowing down the joint and the torch’ heat vertical to the joint. Thus, a uniform deposit can’t be applied to the joints (Welding Joints).

3. 2G/PC Welding Position (Horizontal):

2G/PC welding position is a horizontal position principally utilized for butt welding. In this kind of welding position, the piece of metal remains parallel to the welder’s body and welds  from the front.This applies where the pipe is in the upward or vertical direction, and the weld pivot is in the horizontal direction.

4. 3G Uphill/PF Welding Position (Vertical):

This is an vertical or upward position welding, in which the axis of the weld is nearly perpendicular. 3G uphill welding position is utilized for both butt and filet welds. The angle of the torch is 45° while welding, and the welder has utilized metal from the bottom.

5. 3G Downhill/PG Welding Position (Vertical):

3G Downhill is a vertical welding position that is utilized for butt and filet welding. The welder will utilize the metal from the test piece’s upper parts and the electric arc’s kinetic force to keep up with the weld puddle. This position is viewed as great according to the perspective of efficiency.

6. 4G/4F Welding Position (Overhead):

4G/4F welding position is performed from under the joint and is generally utilized for filet welds. In this welding position, the deposited sags or falls on the plate, causing the dab structure a raised peak. In this, the welder will more often than not be holding the light at around 45º (contingent upon the place of the plate or pipe) under the piece.

7. 5G Welding Position:

The 5G welding position is utilized where the pipe is held on a horizontal or x-axis, however, the pipe is stationary or can’t be rotated. This welding position is utilized for groove welds. This position is basically the same as the 1G welding position, yet just the pipe can’t be pivoted. This is otherwise called PF in ISO/EN guidelines.

8. 5G Uphill/PH Welding Position (Vertical):

This is the vertical-up position utilized for butt welds and is a standard manual technique of pipe welds. In this present circumstance, welders follow three welding techniques in succession, beginning from the overhead position to the horizontal and afterward to the flat position. Since the pipe isn’t twisted or rotated, it is difficult.

9. 5G Downhill/PJ Welding Position (Vertical):

The 5G downhill position is the upward down position utilized for pipe butt welds and is an incredible technique for welding pipe manually. Welders’ ought to use appropriate and explicit hardware for welding pipes against molten metal’s dragging force of gravity.

Doing so increases welding efficiency and provides the desired welding result. During 5G, welders go through three welding stages: the horizontal, the flat, and the overhead.

10. 6G Welding Position:

Welders accept the 6G welding position to be one of the most challenging welding position to perform by the professional. A professional or skilled and experienced welder can do welding with a 6G position. Since one pipe should be situated at an angle of 45° to the next pipe, it transforms into the most complex and testing situation for the welder. It is generally called the overhead weld position or welder certification test position.

Advantages of Welding Positions:

  • Quick Change starting with one material and then onto the next.
  • The process fits welding in confined spaces and different positions with few issues.
  • Simple to move from one location then onto the next.
  • Requires no external safeguarding gas and can be used outside in light to medium breeze.
  • High deposition proficiency when utilized in specific transfer modes
  • Lower hydrogen weld deposits with all terminals.
  • High production factor since no slag is required to be eliminated and utilizes a continuous electrode.
  • With the parameters properly set for the application, the vast majority can weld after an exceptionally short amount of practice.
  • For certain varieties of the process welding can be performed in mild breezy locations when compared with GMAW.
  • You don’t have to buy multiple shielding gases to work proficiently, as Argon gas is normally utilized for most GTAW welding applications.

Disadvantages of Different Welding Positions:

  • Poor gas coverage can prompt issues related to contamination.
  • You want to grasp the right polarity for your welds.
  • Welding position requires a wire feeder which is difficult to move and can once in a while be a maintenance or repair burden.
  • Needs shielding gas for certain wires, so welding in windy conditions can be troublesome.
  • Slag should be eliminated.
  • There is an increased possibility of the absence of fusion on the off chance that parameters and welding techniques are not controlled to weld. It is extremely simple to carry an exceptionally large puddle, which can incredibly increase the chances of absence of fusion.
  • The gun is challenging to get into tight places.
  • A portion of self-shielded electrodes have limited deposit thicknesses because of the flux and electrode combination.
  • Increased chance of lack of fusion in the event that parameters and welding technique are not controlled. 


Whichever weld position you’re utilizing, it’s always a smart idea to do a couple of training passes preceding performing the weld to ensure you can finish the entire length of the weld in a comfortable position. In the event that you’re not in a comfortable position, it can bring about an inconsistent weld.

Simply recall that your filler metal choice and mode of transfer will figure out what welding position you can utilize.

This is a short outline of five general welding process types. There are hundreds (on the off chance that not a great many) of varieties and specifications that determine the best weld procedures for every application. For most projects, your fabricator will be the most suited to decide what strategies and processes will be best for fit, function, and cost. Contingent upon the necessities of the project, it may make sense with a welding specialist to decide the best process, and a decent fab shop will let you know whether and when outside help ought to be brought in.

Content Source: – gsmindustrial

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